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- Aerts, D. (2010). Interpreting quantum particles as conceptual entities.
International Journal of Theoretical Physics,49, pp. 2950-2970. doi: 10.1007/s10773-010-0440-0. Archive reference and link: http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/1004.2531. download pdf.

Abstract:We elaborate an interpretation of quantum physics founded on the hypothesis that quantum particles are conceptual entities, playing the role of communication vehicles between material entities composed of ordinary matter which function as memory structures for these quantum particles. We show in which way this new interpretation gives rise to a natural explanation for the quantum e?ects of interference and entanglement by analyzing how interference and entanglement emerges for the case of human concepts. We put forward a scheme to derive a metric type of structure based on similarity as a predecessor for 'space, time, momentum, energy' and 'quantum particles interacting with ordinary matter' structure underlying standard quantum physics, within the new interpretation, and making use of aspects of traditional quantum axiomatics. More speciÞcally we analyze how the e?ect of non locality arises as a consequence of the confrontation of such an emerging metric type of structure and a remaining of the presence of basic conceptual structure on the fundamental level, with the potential of being revealed in specific situations.- Aerts, D. (2010). A potentiality and conceptuality interpretation of quantum physics.
Philosophica,83, pp. 15-52. Archive reference and link: http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/1005.3767. download pdf.

Abstract:We elaborate on a new interpretation of quantum mechanics which we introduced recently. The main hypothesis of this new interpretation is that quantum particles are entities interacting with matter conceptually, which means that pieces of matter function as interfaces for the conceptual content carried by the quantum particles. We explain how our interpretation was inspired by our earlier analysis of non-locality as non-spatiality and a specific interpretation of quantum potentiality, which we illustrate by means of the example of two interconnected vessels of water. We show by means of this example that philosophical realism is not in contradiction with the recent findings with respect to Leggett's inequalities and their violations. We explain our recent work on using the quantum formalism to model human concepts and their combinations and how this has given rise to the foundational ideas of our new quantum interpretation. We analyze the equivalence of meaning in the realm of human concepts and coherence in the realm of quantum particles, and how the duality of abstract and concrete leads naturally to a Heisenberg uncertainty relation. We illustrate the role played by interference and entanglement and show how the new interpretation explains the problems related to identity and individuality in quantum mechanics. We put forward a possible scenario for the emergence of the reality of macroscopic objects.- Aerts, D., Czachor, M., D'Hooghe, B. and Sozzo, S. (2010). The Pet-Fish problem on the World-Wide Web.
Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium (FS-10-08), Quantum Informatics for Cognitive, Social, and Semantic Processes, pp. 17-21. download pdf.

Abstract: We identify the presence of Pet-Fish problem situations and the corresponding Guppy effect of concept theory on the World-WideWeb. For this purpose, we introduce absolute weights for words expressing concepts and relative weights between words expressing concepts, and the notion of 'meaning bound' between two words expressing concepts, making explicit use of the conceptual structure of the World-Wide Web. The Pet-Fish problem occurs whenever there are exemplars - in the case of Pet and Fish these can be Guppy or Goldfish - for which the meaning bound with respect to the conjunction is stronger than the meaning bounds with respect to the individual concepts.- Aerts, D., Czachor, M. and Sozzo, S. (2010). A contextual quantum-based formalism for population dynamics.
Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium (FS-10-08), Quantum Informatics for Cognitive, Social, and Semantic Processes, pp. 22-25. download pdf.

Abstract: Population ecology is mainly based on nonlinear equations of the Lotka-Volterra type, which provide mathematical models for describing the dynamics of interacting species. However, for many interacting populations, these equations entail complex dynamical behavior and unpredictability, generating such difficulties and problematical situations as illustrated by the "paradox of the plankton" and the "paradox of enrichment", for instance. A careful analysis shows that an ecosystem is a fundamentally contextual system, hence any formalism describing such systems should incorporate contextuality from the very beginning. But existing approaches are based on classical physics and probability theory, and introduce contextuality as an external effect, so that they cannot generally explain the main peculiarities of ecosystems. Basing ourselves on a contextual formalism elaborated to study microscopic systems in quantum mechanics and including appropriate nonlinear equations, we construct a generalization of the Lotka-Volterra equations for contextual systems, apply these equations to discuss some paradoxical situations encountered in ecology, and propound alternative solutions to those currently existing in the literature.- Aerts, D., D'Hooghe, B. and Haven, E. (2010). Quantum experimental data in psychology and economics.
International Journal of Theoretical Physics,49, pp. 2971-2990. Archive reference and link: http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/1004.2529. doi: 10.1007/s10773-010-0477-0. download pdf.

Abstract: We prove a theorem which shows that a collection of experimental data of probabilistic weights related to decisions with respect to situations and their disjunction cannot be modeled within a classical probabilistic weight structure in case the experimental data contain the effect referred to as the 'disjunction effect' in psychology. We identify different experimental situations in psychology, more specifically in concept theory and in decision theory, and in economics (namely situations where Savage's Sure-Thing Principle is violated) where the disjunction effect appears and we point out the common nature of the effect. We analyze how our theorem constitutes a no-go theorem for classical probabilistic weight structures for common experimental data when the disjunction effect is affecting the values of these data. We put forward a simple geometric criterion that reveals the non classicality of the considered probabilistic weights and we illustrate our geometrical criterion by means of experimentally measured membership weights of items with respect to pairs of concepts and their disjunctions. The violation of the classical probabilistic weight structure is very analogous to the violation of the well-known Bell inequalities studied in quantum mechanics. The no-go theorem we prove in the present article with respect to the collection of experimental data we consider has a status analogous to the well known no-go theorems for hidden variable theories in quantum mechanics with respect to experimental data obtained in quantum laboratories. For this reason our analysis puts forward a strong argument in favor of the validity of using a quantum formalism for modeling the considered psychological experimental data as considered in this paper.

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