Svetlana Verbruggen

Algemene informatie

Kb 119
Prof. dr. ir. Tysmans


Externe wapening, Cementmatrix composieten, Versteviging betonconstructies


Ph. D. Thesis: Reinforcement of concrete beams in bending with externally bonded textile reinforced cementitious composites

In most industrialized countries, the infrastructure like bridges and buildings is fully built. Nevertheless there is a constant change in needs and a constant degradation of this infrastructure, introducing the need for strengthening and repair. Recent developments in cement composites have led to the development of high fibre volume fraction Textile Reinforced Cements (TRC) (up to 25%). Their high mechanical performance enables the use of these materials in structural applications, such as strengthening and repair of concrete structures. The use of a TRC has some advantages when compared to the existing (Carbon) Fibre Reinforced Polymer ((C)FRP) techniques, especially the material’s resistance against fire and high temperatures.

The literature review indicates that open grid TRCs (resulting in relatively low fibre volume percentages, typically 2-5 %) have a high potential as external reinforcement, but are incapable to reach the same strengthening level as obtained for FRP solutions. To achieve comparable strengthening capacities, dense fibre textiles combined with a fine grained mortar can be used. Inorganic Phosphate Cement is such a fine grained cementitious matrix material. In combination with dense randomly oriented glass fibre textiles, a durable TRC with high tensile (60MPa) and compressive (90MPa) strength is created.

In order to understand the interaction between the concrete substrate and the external TRC, non-internally-reinforced beams, externally reinforced in bending are tested. The influence on the loadbearing and cracking behaviour of the application of additional bolt connections, the pre-treatment of the concrete surface and the contact area between the reinforcement and the concrete are investigated. Hereafter, a more realistic situation is studied, including the presence of internal reinforcement and the existence of pre-cracks in the concrete volume. To validate this new external reinforcement technique with high fibre volume fraction TRCs, a comparison against the established technique based on CFRP reinforcement is performed. The crack pattern and its evolution in the concrete volume are studied using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements, which are for some experiments compared to Acoustic Emission (AE) results.

These experimental campaigns demonstrate the possibilities and the feasibility of the use of a high fibre volume fraction TRC as an external bending reinforcement for concrete beams. The effectiveness of bolts is illustrated in the case where failure is governed by peeling-off at a mixed flexural and shear crack. A concrete pre-treatment, prior to the application of the TRC proves to be necessary, although the exact type does not influence the loadbearing or cracking behaviour. The initial high stiffness of externally reinforced concrete beams is retained significantly longer than the analytically predicted cracking moment and than the one of a non-externally reinforced alternative, having positive effects on the serviceability limit state of deflection. This phenomenon can be attributed to the crack bridging capacity of the external reinforcement. Applying the same TRC cross section over a larger concrete contact area, results in a more efficient crack bridging, with more and less wide cracks. Even though a beam’s high initial stiffness seems to be lost by pre-cracking (due to the instant growth of the existing cracks) the overall loadbearing behaviour, failure mode and ultimate load do not change. Due to its lower strength and stiffness, a larger TRC cross section is needed compared with the CFRP strips; when this larger cross section results in a larger contact area with the concrete substrate several advantages are obtained concerning the cracking and loadbearing behaviour. 


Conference publications: 

Publications in scientific journals with an international referee system

As first author – Published

1. Verbruggen S., Remy O., Wastiels J., Tysmans T.; “Stay-in-Place formwork of TRC designed as shear reinforcement for concrete beams”; Advances in materials science and engineering; Vol. 2013; Article ID 648943; 9 pages; 2013; doi:10.1155/2013/648943; 2013.

2. Verbruggen S., Aggelis D.G., Tysmans T., Wastiels J.; “Bending of beams externally reinforced with TRC and CFRP monitored by DIC and AE”; Composite structures; Vol. 112; pp. 113-121; DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.02.006; 2014.

3. Verbruggen S., Tysmans T., Wastiels J.; “TRC or CFRP strengthening for reinforced concrete beams: an experimental study of the cracking behaviour”; Engineering structures; Vol. 77; pp. 49-56; 2014.

As first author – Submitted

4. Verbruggen S., Tysmans T., Wastiels J.; “Bending crack behaviour of plain concrete beams externally reinforced with TRC”; Submitted to Construction and building materials in January 2014.

As co-author – Published

5. Aggelis D.G., Verbruggen S., Tsangouri E., Tysmans T., Van Hemelrijck D.; “Characterization of mechanical performance of concrete beams with external reinforcement by acoustic emission and digital image correlation”; Construction and building materials; Vol. 47; pp. 1037-1045; 2013.

As co-author – Submitted

6. Aggelis D.G., Verbruggen S., Tsangouri E., Tysmans T., Van Hemelrijck D.; “SHM methodology for fracture monitoring of reinforced concrete beam strengthened by textile reinforced cement”; Invited and submitted to special issue “SHM and NDT of civil engineering structures and materials” from Smart structures and systems in January 2014; Current status: Revision submitted (since 22/05/14).

Publications in international conference proceedings

As first author– Published

1. Verbruggen S., Remy O., Wastiels J.; “Structural stay-in-place formwork of textile reinforced cement for concrete beams”; Proceedings of international RILEM conference on material science (6-8/9/10); Aachen, Germany; pp. 185-192; ISBN 978-2-35158-106-3; 2010. [full paper + presentation]

2. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Remy O.; “Textile reinforced cement as an externally bonded reinforcement for concrete beams”; 9th SAMPE Benelux student meeting (10-11/1/11); pp. 15-16; 2011. [abstract + presentation]

3. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Remy O.; “Textile reinforced cement as an externally bonded reinforcement for concrete beams”; SAMPE Europe student seminar (26-27/3/11); Paris, France; 2011. [abstract + presentation]

4. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Remy O.; “Textile reinforced cement as an externally bonded reinforcement for concrete beams”; 32nd SAMPE Europe international technical conference/SEICO 11 (28-30/3/11); Paris, France: 2011. [poster]

5. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Tysmans T., Remy O., Michez S.; “The influence of externally bonded longitudinal TRC reinforcement on the crack pattern of a concrete beam”; Proceedings of 3rd international conference on concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting (3-8/9/12); Cape Town, South Africa; pp. 1259-1265; ISBN 978-0-203-12425-3; 2012. [full paper + presentation]

6. Verbruggen S., Aggelis D.G., Tysmans T., Wastiels J.; “Bending of beams externally reinforced with TRC and CFRP monitored by DIC and AE”; Proceedings of 9th international conference composite science and technology (ICCST/9) (24-26/4/13); Sorrento, Italy; DEStech Publications, Inc; pp. 861-873; ISBN-13: 9781605951133; 2013. [full paper + presentation]

7. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Tysmans T., Puystiens S.; “Comparison between TRC and CFRP as external reinforcement for plain concrete beams”; Proceedings of the international conference on composite materials (ICCM19) (28/7-2/8/13); Montreal, Canada; ISBN: 978-0-9696797-1-4; pp. 2252-2260; 2013. [full paper + presentation]

As co-author – Published

8. Remy O., Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Tysmans T.; “Cement composite stay-in-place formwork: A concept for future building systems”; Proceedings of the 18th international conference on composite materials, paper ID on usb-stick: W33-5-IF0690; 6 pages; 2011. [full paper]

As co-author – Submitted

9. Aggelis D.G., Verbruggen S., Tsangouri E., Tysmans T., Van Hemelrijck D.; “Combination of NDT techniques for studying external repair patches in concrete”; Proceedings of concrete solutions; Belfast, Northern Ireland; 2014.

10. De Sutter S., Tysmans T., Verbruggen S., Wozniak M.; “Shape optimization of the beams in a lightweight concrete-composite beam-and-block floor”; Proceedings of 3rd International RILEM Conference on Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC3); Delft, Netherlands; 2014.

11. Verwimp E., Tysmans T., Mollaert M., Verbruggen S.; “Experimental study on textile reinforced cement composites as alternative reinforcement for concrete shells”; Proceedings of the IASS-SLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints”; Brasilia, Brazil; 2014.

Publications in national communications

As first author – Published

1. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Remy O.; “Voorstelling studieprijs: Analyse en haalbaarheidsstudie van verloren bekistingen uit IPC voor een dragende betonconstructie”; Belgische Betondag, Brussels Expo Paleis 3; 22/10/09. [presentation]

2. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J.; “Voorstelling nieuwe techniek: Textiel verstevigde cement (TRC)”; Newsletter; Nieuwsbrief TD Gelijmde Wapening, Nieuwsbrief 4; pp. 6-9; October 2010. [full paper]

3. Verbruggen S. , Wastiels J., Tysmans T.; “Versteviging van dragende betonconstructies met extern aangebrachte cementmatrix composieten”; KVIV Studiedag “Nieuwe Generatie Gelijmde Wapening”; PIDPA Antwerpen, Belgium; 29/11/11. [presentation]

4. Verbruggen S., Wastiels J., Tysmans T., Remy O.; “The influence of externally bonded textile reinforced cement on the crack pattern of a concrete beam”; VUB PhD Research Day; Brussels, Belgium ; 8/6/12. [poster + presentation]


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